||Cardiovascular System: Blood
- Functions of Blood
- Composition of Blood
- Formed Elements
- Blood Grouping
- Diagnostic Blood Tests
- Explain how blood helps to maintain homeostasis in the body.
- List the components of blood.
- Give the average blood volume for males and females.
- Name the components of plasma.
- Describe the functions of the major plasma proteins.
- List the formed elements of blood.
- Explain the origin of formed elements of blood.
- Describe the structure and functions of hemoglobin.
- Explain how fetal hemoglobin differs from adult hemoglobin.
- Describe the life cycle of red blood cells.
- Describe the different types of white blood cells.
- Describe the structure and function of platelets.
- Describe the three processes that lead to hemostasis.
- Explain the regulation of clot formation and removal.
- Explain the ABO blood group system.
- Describe the Rh blood group system.
- Describe diagnostic blood tests and their importance.
- Describe the clinical importance of stem cells and taking aspirin.
- Explain the dangers of blood clots.
- Describe the following types of blood disorders: Sickle-Cell anemia, erythrocytosis, various types of anemeia, leukemia, thrombocytopenia, clotting disorders, septicemia, malaria, infectious mononucleosis, and AIDS.
||Cardiovascular System: The Heart
- Functions of the Heart
- Size, Shape, and Location of the Heart
- Anatomy of the Heart
- Route of Blood Flow Through the Heart
- Electrical Properties
- Cardiac Cycle
- Mean Arterial Blood Pressure
- Regulation of the Heart
- The Heart and Homeostasis
- Explain the major functions of the heart.
- Give the size, shape, and location of the heart.
- Describe the structure of the pericardium.
- Describe the structure and function of each layer of the heart wall.
- Describe the large vessels that are attached to the heart.
- Describe the coronary circulation.
- Explain the structures and functions of the chambers of the heart.
- List the valves of the heart and give their locations, structures, and functions.
- Describe the flow of blood through the heart.
- Describe the heart skeleton.
- Describe cardiac muscle cells.
- Explain the conduction system of the heart.
- Describe action potentials in cardiac muscle.
- Explain autorhythmicity of heart muscle and pacemaker potential.
- Explain the waves and intervals of an electrocardiogram.
- Describe the cardiac cycle.
- Explain how heart sounds are produced.
- Define mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance.
- Explain the role of MAP in causing blood flow.
- Describe the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of the heart.
- Describe how the function of the heart is altered by changes in blood pressure, pH, carbon dioxide, oxygen, body temperature, and ion concentrations.
- Discuss the following disorders affecting the heart: pericarditis, cardiac tamponade, angina, myocardial infarction, blocked coronary arteries, murmurs, incompetent valve, aortic valve stenosis, endocarditis, cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, coronary thrombosis, septal defect, patent ductus arteriosis, cyanosis, and heart failure.
||Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
- Functions of the Circulatory System
- Structural Features of Blood Vessels
- Pulmonary Circulation
- Systemic Circulation: Arteries
- Systemic Circulation: Veins
- Dynamics of Blood Circulation
- Physiology of the Systemic Circulation
- Control of Blood Flow in Tissues
- Regulation of Mean Arterial Pressure
- Describe the difference between the pulmonary and systemic vessels.
- Describe the functions of blood vessels.
- Describe the different types of capillaries, arteries, and veins.
- Describe the innervations of blood vessels.
- Describe the affect of aging on blood vessels.
- Trace the flow of blood through the pulmonary circulation.
- List the major arteries and describe the body areas they supply.
- List the major veins and describe the body areas they drain.
- Describe laminar and turbulent blood flow.
- Explain how blood pressure is measured.
- Explain Poiseuille’s Law.
- Describe how viscosity affects blood flow.
- Explain Laplace’s Law and critical closing point.
- Describe the effects of vessel diameter and vascular compliance on blood pressure.
- Describe the distribution of blood throughout the body.
- Explain how blood vessel diameter affects blood flow.
- Explain the effects of blood flow on blood pressure and resistance to flow.
- Define pulse pressure and tell how it can be determined.
- Describe the exchange of materials across the capillary wall.
- Describe how preload, venous tone, and gravity affect cardiac output.
- Explain the following controls of blood flow: local mechanisms, nervous stimulation, and hormonal mechanisms.
- Define mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance.
- Describe the factors that determine mean arterial pressure.
- Explain the mechanisms that regulate arterial blood pressure.
- Define circulatory shock and describe its causes.
- Describe the following disorders of blood vessels: varicose veins, phlebitis, gangrene, aneurysm, trauma to the aorta, stroke, edema, venous thrombosis, hypertension, occlusion of blood vessels, and carotid sinus syndrome.
- Functions of the Lymphatic System
- Anatomy of the Lymphatic System
- Name the functions of the lymphatic system.
- Describe the structures of the lymphatic system and their functions.
- Describe the formation and flow of lymph.
- Distinguish between lymphatic tissue and lymph organ. Give examples of each.
- Describe the following disorders of the lymphatic system: lymphedema, elephantiasis, lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, bubonic plague, and lymphoma.
- Immunity Overview
- Innate Immunity
- Adaptive Immunity
- Acquired Immunity
- Overview of Immune Interactions
- Explain specificity and memory in relationship to immunity.
- Distinguish between innate immunity and adaptive immunity.
- Explain the three components of innate immunity.
- Describe the cells and chemicals involved in innate immunity.
- Describe inflammation.
- Describe antigens.
- Describe haptens and explain their role in allergic reactions.
- Explain the development, activation, proliferation, and inhibition of lymphocytes.
- Explain the functions of MHC molecules.
- Describe the differences between class 1 and class 2 MHC molecules.
- Describe antibody-mediated immunity and the cells involved.
- Describe cell-mediated immunity and the cells involved.
- Describe the structure and functions of antibodies.
- Explain primary and secondary immune responses.
- Describe the types and functions of T cells.
- Explain the four ways adaptive immunity is acquired.
- Explain how different types of immunity can interact to eliminate an antigen.
- Describe different types of immunotherapy.
- Discuss the following disorders of the immune system: allergic reactions, transplant rejection, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, AIDS, hay fever, asthma, immune complex disease, urtricaria, anaphylaxis, poison ivy or oak reactions, and SCID.
- Functions of the Respiratory System
- Anatomy and Histology of the Respiratory System
- Measurement of Lung Function
- Physical Properties of Gas Exchange
- Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood
- Regulation of Ventilation
- Respiratory Adaptations to Exercise
- Describe the functions of the respiratory system
- Describe the anatomy and functions of the parts of the respiratory system.
- Describe the respiratory membrane.
- Describe the blood and lymphatic supply to the lungs.
- Describe the roles of the thoracic wall and pleural membranes in respiration.
- Explain the events of inhalation and exhalation.
- Describe how alveolar pressure changes affect breathing.
- Explain the functions of surfactant.
- Explain the factors that affect alveolar volumes.
- Define compliance, minute ventilation, and alveolar ventilation.
- Describe each pulmonary volume and capacity.
- Define anatomical dead space and physiological dead space.
- Define partial pressure and describe the partial pressure gradients for oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- Describe the factors that affect gas movement across the respiratory membrane.
- Explain the relationship between alveolar ventilation and pulmonary capillary perfusion.
- Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood. Describe the factors that affect their transport.
- Explain how carbon dioxide is exchanged between the lungs and body tissues.
- Compare fetal hemoglobin, adult hemoglobin, and maternal hemoglobin.
- Describe how the brainstem, cerebral cortex, and limbic system affect breathing.
- Describe how blood pH, carbon dioxide levels, and oxygen levels affect breathing.
- Describe the Hering-Breuer reflex.
- Describe how exercise affects breathing and the respiratory system.
- Anatomy of the Digestive System
- Functions of the Digestive System
- Histology of the Digestive Tract
- Oral Cavity
- Small Intestine
- Large Intestine
- Digestion and Absorption
- Describe the regions of the digestive tract.
- Explain the functions of the digestive system.
- Discuss the histology of the digestive tract.
- Describe the types of glands associated with the digestive tract.
- Describe the peritoneum.
- Define vestibule and oral cavity proper.
- Describe the structures and functions of the lips, cheeks, palate, and tongue.
- Describe the structure and function of teeth.
- Explain the process of mastication.
- Describe the major salivary glands.
- Describe the composition of saliva.
- Describe the structures and functions of the pharynx and esophagus.
- Describe the process of swallowing.
- Describe the gross anatomy and histology of the stomach.
- Describe the secretions of the stomach, their functions, and how they are regulated.
- Describe gastric movements.
- Describe the structure and function of the small intestine.
- Describe the cell types of the duodenal mucosa.
- Discuss the secretions and movements of the small intestine.
- Describe the anatomy and histology of the liver.
- Describe the digestive functions of the liver and how they are regulated.
- Describe the structure, functions, and regulation of the gall bladder.
- Explain the anatomy and histology of the pancreas.
- Describe the secretions of the pancreas, their functions, and their regulations.
- Describe the anatomy, histology, and functions of the large intestine.
- Describe the chemical digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
- Describe how water and ions are transported across the intestinal wall.
- Discuss the following disorders of the digestive system: dental caries, peptic ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux, vomiting, hepatitis, chirrhosis, liver damage, appendicitis, lactose intolerance, cystic fibrosis, familial hypercholesterolemia, diarrhea, gall stones, IBD, IBS, constipation, typhoid fever, cholera, giardiasis, and dysentery.
||Nutrition, Metabolism, and Temperature Regulation
- Carbohydrate Metabolism
- Lipid Metabolism
- Protein Metabolism
- Interconversion of Nutrient Molecules
- Metabolic States
- Metabolic Rate
- Body Temperature Regulation
- Define nutrition, nutrients, essential nutrients, and kilocalorie.
- Explain the use of MyPyramid.
- Describe the following for carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins: their dietary sources, uses in the body, and daily recommended amounts.
- Describe the important vitamins and minerals for body health.
- Define Reference Daily Intake and Daily Reference Value of food.
- Explain metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism.
- Describe the relationship between hydrogen atoms and energy.
- Describe the process of glycolysis.
- Explain the citric acid cycle.
- Describe the electron-transport chain and its production of ATP.
- Discuss the differences between aerobic respiration and lactic acid fermentation.
- Describe how lipids and proteins are used as energy sources in the body.
- Define the following: glycogenesis, lipogenesis, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis.
- Describe absorptive and postabsorptive metabolic states.
- Describe metabolic rate and name three major uses of metabolic energy in the body.
- Describe how to maintain body weight.
- Explain heat production and regulation in the body.
- Describe the following disorders related to nutrition and metabolism: vitamin deficiencies, mineral definciencies, starvation, alcoholism, PKU, galactosemia, biotinidase deficiency, maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, tyrosinemia, obesity, hyperthermia, and hypothermia.
- Functions of the Urinary System
- Kidney Anatomy and Histology
- Urine Production
- Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume
- Plasma Clearance and Tubular Maximum
- Urine Movement
- Describe the locations of the organs of the urinary system.
- Describe the functions of the kidneys.
- Describe the anatomy of the kidneys.
- Describe the structure and function of nephrons.
- Explain the blood flow through the kidney.
- Describe the process of urine formation.
- Explain the factors that affect urine production.
- Explain the roles of the following on urine volume and concentration: ADH, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone hormone mechanism, and ANH.
- Define plasma clearance.
- Explain the use of inulin to estimate GFR.
- Explain how renal plasma flow is determined.
- Define tubular load and tubular maximum.
- Describe the anatomy and histology of the following: ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
- Describe the flow of urine from the nephron to the urinary bladder.
- Discuss micturition and how it is controlled.
- Describe the following disorders of the urinary system: polycystic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, renal failure, diabetes insipidus, urinary bladder cancer, kidney stones, and automatic bladder.
||Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
- Body Fluids
- Regulation of Body Fluid Concentration and Volume
- Regulation of Intracellular Fluid Composition
- Regulation of Specific Electrolytes in the Extracellular Fluid
- Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
- Describe the major fluid compartments of the body and their subdivisions.
- List the major cations and anions in each fluid department of the body.
- Explain the causes of edema.
- Describe how fluid volumes are regulated in the body.
- Discuss the regulation of the following ions in the body: sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate.
- Define acids, bases, and buffers.
- Explain how buffer systems in the body work.
- Describe the causes and effects of acid-base imbalances.
- Describe the following disorders: hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphatemia, acidosis, alkalosis, and gastroenteritis.
||Male Reproductive System
- Functions of the Reproductive System
- Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
- Physiology of Male Reproduction
- Explain the functions of the male reproductive system.
- Describe the structure and functions of the following: scrotum, testes, ducts of the male reproductive tract, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands.
- Describe the specialized cells of the testes.
- Explain the process of spermatogenesis.
- List the hormones that affect the male reproductive system and describe their effects.
- Describe the changes that occur during puberty.
- Describe the events that occur during the male sex act.
- Discuss the following disorders: inguinal hernia, prostate cancer, male infertility, and erectile dysfunction.
||Female Reproductive System
- Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
- Physiology of Female Reproduction
- List and describe the organs of the female reproductive system.
- Describe the anatomy and histology of the ovaries.
- Describe oogenesis, follicle development, ovulation, and fertilization.
- Describe the changes that occur during puberty.
- Describe the ovarian and menstrual cycles.
- Describe the hormones that affect the female reproductive system and describe their effects.
- Describe the events of the female sex act.
- Describe embryo formation and implantation.
- Explain menopause.
- Discuss the following disorders: cervical cancer, breast cancer, menstrual cramps, amenorrhea, ectopic pregnancy, fibroid tumors, female infertility, PID, and sexually transmitted diseases.
||Human Development, Growth, and Aging
- Prenatal Development
- The Newborn
- First Year After Birth
- Aging and Death
- Describe the events of the prenatal period.
- Describe the events of the postnatal periods.
- Describe fertilization.
- Describe implantation.
- Explain the three germ layers and structures derived from each layer.
- Describe the formation of the neural tube and neural crest.
- Describe the formation of the limbs, the face, and major organ systems.
- Explain the events of parturition including hormonal changes.
- Describe the changes that occur in the newborn right after birth.
- Explain an Apgar score.
- Explain the events of lactation including hormonal changes.
- Describe the changes that occur during the first year of life after birth.
- Describe the process of aging.
- Describe the events that occur at the time of death.
- Explain how twins are formed.
- Discuss stem cell research, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer.
- Discuss fetal alcohol syndrome, neural tube defects, heart defects, fetal monitoring, prematurity, and HIV in the newborn.