||Introduction to Pharmacology
- Basics of Pharmacology
- Drug Terminology
- Drug Effects
- Drug Actions
- Drug Response
- Individual Variability and Drug Interaction
- Drug Dependence and Abuse
- Pediatric Pharmacology
- Geriatric Pharmacology
- Relate the basic drug terminology used in pharmacology to its appropriate definition.
- Analyze the effects that a drug can produce in the body with specific reference to therapeutic effect, side effect, and toxic effect.
- Evaluate what happens when a drug is ingested into the human body with reference to the processes of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
- Analyze the response of a drug in the human body with reference to half-life, blood drug levels, and bioavailability.
- Analyze the factors that influence drug response in individuals and explain how individual variability is different from drug interaction.
- Distinguish between drug dependence and abuse with respect to the reasons for taking the drug.
- Evaluate drug actions in pediatric patients and propose appropriate drug administration methods.
- Evaluate drug actions in elderly patients and propose appropriate drug administration methods.
- Fractions, Decimals, and Percents
- Systems of Measurements
- Ratios and Proportions
- Solutions and IV
- Solve problems using fractions, decimals, and percents.
- Solve dosage calculation problems using metric, apothecary, and household systems of measurement.
- Solve dosage calculation problems for solutions and intravenous infusions.
||The Nervous System
- Autonomic Nervous System Functioning
- Parasympathetic Stimulation
- Central Nervous System Structure
- Organ Function
- Effects of Drugs on the Sympathetic Nervous System
- Effects of Drugs on the Parasympathetic Nervous System
- Effects of Drugs on the Autonomic Ganglia
- Illustrate the functions of the autonomic nervous system, including the role of neurotransmitters.
- Examine the effects of parasympathetic stimulation.
- Examine the structure of the human brain and explain the functions of its various parts.
- Evaluate the role of norepinephrine and epinephrine on alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors.
- Analyze how drugs act to reduce para- and sympathetic activity.
- Assess the role of acetylcholine on the parasympathetic nervous system.
- Distinguish between drugs that produce ganglionic stimulation and ganglionic blockade with respect to their effects and adverse effects.
||Psychological Disorders and Drugs
- Sedative- Hypnotic Drugs
- Psychotomimetic Drugs
- Mental Disorders
- Antipsychotic Drugs
- Antianxiety Drugs
- Antimanic Drugs
- Analyze the role of hypnotic drugs in relation to the sleep cycle and describe their adverse effects.
- Analyze the mechanisms of action of various psychotomimetic drugs.
- Compare and contrast barbiturates and benzodiazepines in terms of their mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions.
- Compare various psychotomimetic drugs with reference to their tolerance and dependency and treatment for intoxication.
- Classify mental disorders as psychoses, neuroses, and mood disorders.
- Distinguish among various antianxiety, antidepressant, and antimanic drugs in terms of mechanisms of action, effects, and adverse effects.
||Common Pain Relief Agents
- Muscle Activity
- Muscle Relaxants
- General Anesthetics
- Local Anesthetics
- Side Effects and Adverse Effects
- Effects of Opioid Analgesics
- Other Effects of Opioid Analgesics
- Adverse Effects and Drug Interactions
- Nonopioid Analgesics
- Describe the process of muscle relaxation and contraction.
- Distinguish among the various types of muscle relaxants with reference to their mechanism of action, route of administration, clinical indications, and effects.
- Relate the various types of muscle relaxants to their adverse effects and drug interactions.
- Sequence the stages of general anesthesia with specific reference to the action of drug adjuncts.
- Analyze the mechanism of action of local anesthetics and their effect on the heart.
- Compare and contrast the routes of administration for various general and local anesthetics.
- Compare and contrast the ways in which general and local anesthetics are excreted from the body.
- Compare and contrast the side effects and adverse effects of general and local anesthetics.
- List the sources of opioid analgesics and relate their effects to the physiology of pain.
- Examine the actions of opioid analgesics as antitussives on the smooth muscles, cardiovascular system, and eyes.
- Explain the mechanism of action of opioid analgesics.
- Analyze the most common adverse effects and drug interactions of opioid analgesics and explain opioid poisoning and opioid antagonists.
- Evaluate the various types of nonopioid analgesics and recommend correct doses of these drugs for adults.
- Explain the absorption, metabolism, and adverse effects of nonopioid analgesics.
- Select appropriate pain relief drugs for various types of inflammation.
- Assess the treatment of acute gout with relation to the characteristics of the disease, drug actions, and drug interactions.
||Cardiac Function, Disorders, and Blood Pressure
- Heart Structure and Function
- Congestive Heart Failure
- Blood Pressure and Hypertension
- Drugs Used to Treat Congestive Heart Failure and Hypertension
- Cardiac Arrhythmia
- Angina Pectoris
- Relate the structure of the heart to its functioning.
- Analyze the condition of congestive heart failure and the body's natural response to it.
- Relate physiological factors, including kidney function, to blood pressure.
- Analyze drug therapy in relation to congestive heart failure and hypertension, including pharmacological actions and adverse effects of various drugs.
- Examine the normal cardiac cycle and differentiate between common cardiac arrhythmias.
- Relate the four different classes of antiarrhythmic drugs to their action mechanisms and adverse effects.
- Describe the common causes of two main types of angina pectoris.
- Explain the mechanisms of action, routes of administration, and adverse effects of antianginal drugs.
||Blood Clotting, Anemia, and Lipids
- Anticoagulants and Coagulants
- Relate the actions of coagulants and anticoagulants to the natural process of formation and dissolution of blood clots.
- Analyze the mechanisms of action of coagulants and anticoagulants, routes of administration, interactions, and treatment for an overdose.
- Compare and contrast the various causes of anemia and their appropriate treatment.
- Explain the side effects and special considerations in the treatment of anemia.
- Analyze the sources and uses of dietary lipids, their normal blood levels, and the health effects of hyperlipidemia.
- Evaluate the mechanisms of action of various hypolipidemic drugs with specific reference to their adverse effects.
- Allergies and Respiratory Diseases
- Drugs Used to Treat Allergies and Respiratory Diseases
- Respiratory Immunology
- Describe the body's response to antigens and the actions of histamine.
- Analyze the causes, processes, and effects of respiratory diseases.
- Compare and contrast antiallergic and antihistaminic drugs with specific reference to their adverse reactions, drug interactions, and contraindications in the treatment of allergies and respiratory diseases.
- Assess anti inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators, expectorants, and mucolytics in the treatment of respiratory diseases.
||Gastrointestinal Disorders and Intestinal Motility
- Drugs Used to Treat Digestive Disorders
- Intestinal Motility Disorders
- Analyze the normal process of digestion and describe ulcer formation, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and vomiting.
- Compare and contrast the actions of drugs used to treat ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and vomiting. Examine their mechanisms of action, adverse effects, contraindications, and interactions.
- Analyze the causes and effects of diarrhea and explain the actions of drugs used to treat simple diarrhea and their contraindications.
- List the appropriate clinical uses of laxatives and cathartics and explain their actions, routes of administration, adverse effects, and contraindications.
- Discuss irritable bowel syndrome and how this condition is treated.
||Endocrine System and Steroids
- Growth Hormone
- Adrenal Steroids
- Adrenal Steroids as Drugs
- Relate hormone production to its functions.
- Examine the function of growth hormone replacement therapy, its clinical use, and adverse effects.
- Analyze the effects of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and the effects of deficiency of these hormones.
- Explain the clinical indications and contraindications, administration, adverse effects, and drug interactions of adrenal steroids.
||Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
- Thyroid Hormones
- Parathyroid Hormone and Other Factors that Influence Calcium
- Relate the functions of hormones produced in the para- and thyroid glands to their clinical uses.
- Examine the adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions of drugs used to treat thyroid conditions.
- Evaluate drugs used to treat parathyroid conditions and degenerative bone disorders.
- Identify the non-income determinants of consumption.
- Assess the contribution of insulin and glucagon toward the maintenance of healthy blood glucose levels and describe the two types of diabetes.
- Differentiate the actions of drugs used in the treatment of diabetes, including insulin, oral hypoglycemics, biguanide, insulin sensitizers, and glucose absorption inhibitors.
- Compare and contrast the sources, routes of administration, and dosages of various drugs used to treat diabetes.
- Describe the posterior pituitary hormones and where they are stored.
||Hormones and Reproduction
- Female Sex Hormones
- Labor and Breastfeeding
- Male Sex Hormones
- Summarize the clinical uses, actions, and routes of administration of female sex hormones.
- Evaluate the adverse effects of female sex hormones and the risks of hormone replacement therapy.
- Relate the actions of oxytocin to its clinical uses and describe its adverse effects.
- Summarize the clinical uses, actions, and routes of administration of male sex hormones.
- Explain the adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions of male sex hormones.
- Explain the functions and clinical use for oxytocin.
- Describe the clinical use of tocolytic drugs.
||Viral, Bacterial, and Fungal Pharmacology
- Antiseptics and Disinfectants
- Antibacterial Drugs
- Antifungal Drugs
- Viral Diseases and Antiviral Drugs
- Antibacterial Agents
- Describe the mechanisms of action of antiseptics and disinfectants and explain how they are used.
- Recommend appropriate uses of antiseptics and disinfectants, taking into account adverse and toxic effects.
- Differentiate the specific uses, mechanisms of action, and routes of administration for major groups of antibacterial drugs.
- Analyze adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions for major groups of antibiotic and antimicrobial drugs.
- Differentiate the specific uses, mechanisms of action, and routes of administration for major groups of antifungal drugs.
- ADescribe the propagation of viruses and the mechanisms of action of antiviral drugs.
- Assess the value and contribution of drugs used to treat influenza, herpes, and AIDS.
- Analyze adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions for antiviral drugs.
||Parasitic Infection and Wound Pharmacology
- Protozoal Infections
- Helminthic Infections
- Antiseptics and Disinfectants
- Compare and contrast diseases caused by protozoal infection.
- Differentiate the mechanism of action, routes of administration, adverse effects, contraindications, and interactions of drugs used to treat protozoal infections.
- Describe diseases caused by parasitic worms.
- Analyze the mechanism of action of drugs used to treat parasitic worm infections and their adverse effects and drug interactions.
- Explain the role of antiseptics and disinfectants.
- Explain the categories of antiseptics and disinfection, such as virucidal and bacteriostatic.
- Describe the clinical uses of antiseptics and disinfectants.
- Identify common chemicals used to inhibit infectious microorganisms.
- Describe adverse effects and special cautions associated with antiseptics and disinfectants.
||Cancer and Immune Pharmacology
- Types of Cancer
- Drug Therapy
- Adverse Effects
- Immune System
- Drug Actions
- Relate types of cancer to their characteristics.
- Differentiate the mechanisms of action of alkylating and antimetabolite drugs.
- Explain the actions of other drugs used to treat cancer.
- Examine the adverse effects of drugs used to treat cancer.
- Relate types of immune cells to their functions and actions.
- Analyze the mechanisms of action of immunostimulant and immunosuppressive drugs and their uses and adverse effects.
||Nutrition, Fluids, and Diuretics
- Adverse Effects
- Kidney Function
- Differentiate the functions of various nutrients in maintaining normal body function.
- Analyze nutrient deficiency with relation to recommended levels of nutrients and symptoms of deficiency.
- Analyze the effects of supplement overdose and drug-supplement interactions.
- Propose treatment plans for deficiency diseases.
- Examine the structure and functions of the kidneys.
- Analyze the conditions associated with renal dysfunction.
- Relate diuretics to their mechanisms of action.
- Explain the side effects of diuretics.
- Complete a review of key content covered in this course and Final Examination.